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管控投资自由化图书

Managing Investment Liberalization:The Political Economy of Japanese Foreign Direcet Investment in the United States(1985-1993)

SSAPID:101-8188-9957-89
ISBN:978-7-5097-2787-4
DOI:
ISSN:

[内容简介] 20世纪80年代以来,跨国公司构成了世界经济增长的发动机,是狂飙突进的全球化最引人注目的亮点。如何充分利用资本跨国运动带来的好处,是民族国家的管理者面临的一项艰难挑战。本书以20世纪80年代日本跨国公司投资美国、美国决策者协调管理日本资本为分析对象,试图揭示世界经济中的第一大经济体与第二大经济体之间复杂的政治与经济互动关系。本书发现,美国在全球直接投资治理、日美双边关系协调以及美国国内州际竞争三个层次上分别管控资本流动的进程。

相关信息

丛书名:国际战略研究丛书
作 者: 钟飞腾
编 辑:陶璇
出版社:社会科学文献出版社
出版时间: 2012年01月
语 种:中文
中图分类:D5 世界政治

 序

 内容摘要

 Abstract

 后记

 导论

  第一节 问题研究

  第二节 既有的三种解释性观点

  第三节 分析框架与观点

  第四节 本书结构

 第一章 利益、制度与政策调整

  第一节 国际政治经济学的新框架

   一 跨国公司研究的三种传统模型

   二 国际政治经济学的利益—制度框架

  第二节 对外直接投资的政治经济学

   一 分配性效应的政治学

   二 制度结构与政策工具

  第三节 三个层面的政策调整

 第二章 日本外资在美国的地位

  第一节 日本对外直接投资的兴起与美国权力

  第二节 日本在美国直接投资的产业分布

   一 服务业

   二 制造业

  第三节 日本在美国直接投资的地理分布

  第四节 日本对外直接投资的转型

  第五节 本章小结

 第三章 相对获益与美国国家竞争力

  第一节 美国的直接投资利益和政策论辩

   一 自由世界经济秩序与跨国公司

   二 美国自由投资政策的回顾

   三 投资地位变革与投资政策论辩

  第二节 《埃克森—弗洛里奥修正案》与美国经济安全

   一 富士通收购案与《埃克森—弗洛里奥修正案》的起源

   二 《埃克森—弗洛里奥修正案》的创立

   三 《埃克森—弗洛里奥修正案》的运行与国家安全

   四 《埃克森—弗洛里奥修正案》的演进与经济安全

  第三节 外国投资委员会的制度变革和信息促进

   一 外国投资委员会的权力扩张

   二 《1990年国际数据改进法案》

  第四节 管理流入美国外资的部门政策

   一 反垄断和研发政策

   二 克林顿经济学与跨国公司国籍

  第五节 本章小结

 第四章 企业战略、利益分配和国内政治

  第一节 日本跨国公司的价值创造战略

   一 企业逻辑和国家逻辑

   二 市场份额战略

   三 政治游说战略

  第二节 个体政策偏好和次一级政府利益

   一 收入分配和投资政策偏好

   二 州的利益与1988年投资政策投票

   三 模型、数据和衡量

   四 经验性结果

  第三节 州间投资战

   一 新联邦主义的制度设计

   二 新经济现实的利益变革

   三 案例研究:五大湖地区和加利福尼亚

   四 五大湖地区

   五 加利福尼亚

  第四节 本章小结

 第五章 投资不对称、贸易关联和国际经济政策协调

  第一节 日本政府与美日投资不对称

   一 投资不对称与贸易失衡

   二 战略性投资政策与关联政治

  第二节 双边谈判与美国对日经济政策

   一 早期双边管理外资方式

   二 日本问题与美国对日经济政策

   三 市场准入战略:改变不对称

   四 市场导向的选择性部门(MOSS,1985~1986)

   五 结构性障碍倡议(SIT,1989~1990)

   六 1993年新经济伙伴关系框架

  第三节 乌拉圭回合的投资议题

   一 乌拉圭回合投资议题的起源

   二 TRIMs的两种类型

    3.授权、美国领导力与TRIMs的趋同

   四 互利、互惠原则与TRIMs的达成

  第四节 本章小结

 第六章 管控资本全球化的进程

  第一节 三层面管理直接投资摩擦

  第二节 投资流动与制度调整

  第三节 问题导向的国际政治经济学研究

本书考察20世纪80年代后期到90年代初期,日本直接投资流动引起的美国国际投资政策的变革,从强调政治与经济互动的国际政治经济学视角出发,分析美国的国际投资政策变革与日本直接投资的关联性。本书的核心问题是美国为什么以及如何管理流入美国的日本直接投资。具体来讲,这项研究涉及三个重要且相互关联的内容:第一,考察美国为什么要管理或者说管制流入美国的直接投资,特别是来自日本而非其他国家的直接投资。第二,历史性地描述美国对待日本外资的态度,特别是1985~1993年这一阶段的演化过程。第三,把国际经济制度的建设纳入研究视野,特别是关贸总协定(GATT)乌拉圭回合谈判中关于贸易相关的投资(TRIMs)部分的谈判。本书依重国际政治经济学(IPE)第二代学者提出的利益和制度分析框架,分析一个特定的直接投资问题领域。在该框架中,利益主要是指经济利益。IPE学者充分认识到微观经济学的解释力,主张在研究对外经济政策时接受理性主义假定,借用经济理论来分析利益变动。制度主要是指政治经济制度,它直接规定了哪一类人可以有权利接近、影响决策者,哪一类人可以供给政策。一般而言,政策不是由经济学家而是被政治家制定,并且最终也是政治妥协的结果。经济要素跨国界引发的利益变动,强有力地推动各集团去要求政府推行某些符合其自身利益的政策。但最终此种政策偏好能否转化为政策结果取决于特定的政治制度所给定的各集团权力划分。鉴于美国对国际政治经济的影响力、其庞大的国内市场以及特殊的政治制度,我们可以更进一步地把美国的应对措施分别摆在三个层面对其进行描述、剖析和解释。首先,联邦层面。日本的对外直接投资进入的那些产业,如果能够显著影响美国与日本的国家经济实力差距,那么它就引起美国联邦政府的强烈关注。美国中央决策者关注相对获益和经济的国际竞争力。美国认为日本的对外直接投资是对美国实力与地位的严重挑战。这意味着对经济安全的考虑是促使美国联邦政府推动政策变革的动力所在。其次,州政府的政策。从利益层面讲,直接投资与贸易不同,他的区位特性十分明显。一部分日本直接投资为州政府创造了积极的效应,受到州以及居民的欢迎。从制度上讲,美国的联邦主义使得我们的分析有法理基础。美国独特的制度设计为州政府变革经济活动留下了广阔的空间。这一观点强调州政府和联邦政府在面对日本外资流入时的目标函数不同。州政府采取自由主义态度还是保护主义姿态,更多地取决于外资能否为该州创造出经济效益,而甚少涉及意识形态、文化或者国家安全。那些吸收日本外资多的州,在联邦政府保护主义声音激烈的时候才倾向于坚持自由主义姿态。最后,在国际层面上,美国拥有积极的能力和意愿对日本的一部分外资进行调整。本书认为GATT框架在乌拉圭回合谈判中之所以能够成功地建立与投资相关的制度,特别是与贸易相关的国际制度,部分根源于美国与日本的外资摩擦。进一步来看,国际投资制度的建立不纯粹是主权国家间的事务,还涉及另外一个相当重要的行为体——跨国公司。历史经验表明,美国对国际制度的倚重来源于经济利益,同时国际制度建设的成功与否也与美国的权力制衡机制息息相关。国际经济制度既给美国提供了缓冲时间和交易平台,也同时约束了美国,让美国顾虑其他国际经济议题的收益不至于走向极端的投资保护主义。因此,美国的国际经济战略不能被简单地归类到保护主义或者自由主义,要看其具体议题和具体的时间段,以及针对哪个国家。本书发现美国针对日本外资的政策处于自由主义和保护主义两者之间。投资政策调整的这种多样性主要源于日本外资的特性,同时也受到美国在该议题上的制度性框架约束。也就是说,本书设法区分不同来源地的外资,它们具有不同的政治经济效应,并强调东道国的政策调整并不仅仅取决于外生的经济冲击效应,也受到本国在国内以及国际上与这一议题有关的既有制度框架的约束。另外,对外直接投资是全球化不可或缺的重要组成部分,一项更具理论性的启示是,全球化对发达国家的效应十分复杂。即便是像美国和日本这样强大的经济体,也并不都从全球化中受益。退一步讲,这两个国家内部的不同集团更是从全球化中感受到了不同的分量。国际经济要素在国家间的流动以及不同国家内部的流动产生了迥异的分配性效应。为了应对这种分配性结果,民族国家层面、国家内部以及国际层面的制度设计相当关键。制度就其根本来说是内生于一个社会的政治经济之中的,它反映了人们对分配性结果的态度。为了从全球化进程中取得富有成效的收获,所有国家都要对全球化持慎重态度。

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