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金砖国家社会分层:变迁与比较图书

Social Stratification in the BRIC Countries: Changes and Perspectives

SSAPID:101-2725-3322-99
ISBN:978-7-5097-2753-9
DOI:
ISSN:

[内容简介] “金砖国家”正在成为一个被国际社会接受的概念和力量,也成为继东亚雁行模式和市场转轨模式之后的一个新的理解中国的比较视角。“金砖国家”的崛起将重组国际秩序和改变未来,而这些国家社会分层结构变迁,是从深层打开理解之门的钥匙。金砖国家社会结构的变化、特别是社会分层结构的变化,是一个来自于社会学的特殊的观察和分析问题的角度。这一视角将有助于我们理解这些新兴经济大国经济增长和社会发展的过程,也有助于我们理解,这些在历史、地理、文化、语言、宗教等方面存在诸多不同的崛起中的大国,何以能够在某些方面形成统一意愿和共同行动。因为正是这些国家社会结构的深层变化,决定着它们的未来,也在很大程度上影响着世界的未来。

相关信息

丛书名:现代社会学文库(第2辑)
编 辑:谢蕊芬;童根兴
出版社:社会科学文献出版社
出版时间: 2011年10月
语 种:中文
中图分类:C91 社会学

 导论 金砖国家的社会分层比较

 《现代社会学文库·第二辑》出版说明

 第一篇 社会分层

  巴西社会分层和转型

   不平等和分层

   区域不平等

   阶层和分层

   结论

  俄罗斯社会转型期的社会结构变化

  当代印度的社会分层与变革

   引言

    作为一种社会分层体系的种姓制度

    种姓制度的起源

    对种姓的定义

    独立后印度的种姓制度

    作为一种现象的种姓

    种姓作为一种离散装置

   结语

  中国改革以来阶级阶层结构的变化

   一 改革开放后阶级阶层政策的调整

   二 社会结构的变动

    1.工业化和城市化的进程

    2.人口和家庭结构的变化

    3.区域发展结构的变化

    4.所有制结构的变化

    5.组织结构的变化

   三 阶级阶层结构和利益格局的变化

    1.阶级阶层结构的变化

    2.利益格局的变化

   四 中国阶级阶层研究关注的几个问题

    1.收入差距扩大是阶段性特征还是长期趋势?

    2.市场机制的导入是否造成了收入不平等的加剧?

    3.究竟什么是“社会公正”?

    4.怎样认识“中产阶级”和“小康大众”?

    5.如何看待“农民工”在未来发展中的作用?

 第二篇 工人阶级

  当代巴西的劳工、工人和政治,1980~2010年

   20世纪80年代:劳工和民主化转变

   20世纪90年代和劳工世界的变化

   2000年:复苏和危机

   结论

  转型社会中的工人阶级:从苏联到俄罗斯

  印度的城市工业工人阶级和乡村农业工人阶级

   定义工人阶级

   工人阶级的分化

   社会结构与工人阶级

   全球化与工人阶级

   结论

  当代中国工人阶级的境遇与地位变迁

   一 改革开放以来工人阶级内部结构的变化

    (一)就业单位的分化:非公有制经济单位就业职工比例不断增加

    (二)就业结构的改变:第三产业工人成为工人阶级的主要部分

    (三)专业技能的提升:白领工人和技术工人数量快速增加

    (四)收入差距的扩大:垄断行业和暴利行业职工收入偏高

    (五)“新工人阶级”的壮大:农民工成为工人阶级的重要组成部分

   二 改革开放后工人阶级的三个主要变化

    (一)从政治身份到职业身份的变化

    (二)从依附关系到契约关系的变化

    (三)从单一性人群到多样性人群的变化

   三 中国工人阶级的前景

 第三篇 农民阶级

  巴西农民:抗争的历史

   前言

   土地获得不稳定的各种形式:土地所有的不固定性和生活方式

   巴西的农业现代化

   农民的观念:关于认可的政治争论

   当前巴西家庭农业简况

   农民的适应能力和农业的多种运作

   结论

  改革条件下俄罗斯农村的社会分层

   农村居民数量与年龄性别结构

   农村人口的就业结构

   农村经济部门就业人口的性别组成

   社会分化

   农村失业问题

   农村中产阶级的界定问题

   农户

   农场主经济

   农业企业的领导

   总结:社会结构中的农村与村民

  土地改革和工业化以来印度农民的分化

   土地改革的动态机制

   农民的分化:农民和农场主

   农民的痛苦

   工业化—城市化与农民

   结语

  中国乡村社会与农民

   一 中国城市化与中国乡村人口发展

    (一)当代中国农村人口流动与城市化

    (二)农村人口流动与中国农村经济社会发展

    (三)中国城乡人口的发展差距

   二 中国农民的收入增长与结构变化

    (一)中国农民家庭收入增长过程

    (二)中国农民收入来源结构及其变化

    (三)中国农村反贫困成就与面临的挑战

   三 中国农民家庭的消费增长与不平等

    (一)中国农民家庭生活消费支出的增长

    (二)中国农民生活消费支出结构的改善

    (三)中国农民生活消费支出的不平等

   四 中国农民的分层变化

    (一)改革开放以来中国农民的社会阶层分化的新形势

    (二)中国农民就业结构、职业结构和社会阶层结构的变化

    (三)现阶段中国农民社会阶层分化的主要特征

 第四篇 企业和企业家

  巴西的创新企业

   前言

   概念

   调查结果

    企业家及其公司

   生存与增长战略

   结论

    微观层面

    中间层面

    宏观层面

  俄罗斯企业的发展

   1.兴起:可供选择的经济主体的产生(20世纪80年代末)

   2.在经济出现结构危机和衰退条件下私人经济的合法化和非生产型企业的主导地位(1992~1995年)

   3.经济停滞条件下(1996~1998年)企业活动的不稳定性

   私人—国家伙伴模式的形成和在经济高速增长条件下企业家中发生的根本变化(1999~2008年)

   国家关于企业发展的政策

   中央—各地区:企业活动的发展及其支持企业活动基础制度的不平衡性

   国外技术支持在俄罗斯企业形成中所起的作用

   结论

  印度私营企业主的传统特质与创新精神

   作为一个渴望追求的私营企业主

   经济改革与企业家

   成为经济精英和私有化

   企业家/创业精神的动态

   创业精神的社会矩阵

   结论

  成长壮大中的中国的私营企业主

   一 在中国经济改革开放中崛起的一个新社会阶层

    (一)中国私营企业主的发展历程

    (二)私营企业主阶层规模的扩张

   二 中国私营企业主阶层发展的宏观条件:

    (一)非公有制经济发展的政策空间不断扩展

    (二)公有制企业改制为私营企业发展提供了不断扩大的经济空间

    (三)公共资源支持为私营企业发展提供了大量财力物力

   三 中国私营企业主阶层的社会来源及其变化

    (一)文化程度:中高等学历者所占比例越来越高

    (二)职业经历:专业技术型和管理型职业背景逐渐占据优势

    (三)初始经济资本:进入门槛不断提升

   四 中国私营企业主的地位认同与政治参与

    (一)经济地位自我评价

    (二)社会地位自我评价

    (三)政治参与地位自我评价

    (四)私营企业主的三种地位自我评价的不一致性有明显降低

    (五)中国私营企业主的政治参与

   五 简要结论

 第五篇 中产阶级

  巴西中产阶级的形成:回顾与展望

   概要

   寻找关于“中产阶层”概念的定义

   巴西的中产阶级

   过去十年巴西的中产阶级

   过去十年间巴西中产阶级的特征:收入、教育水平、种族和消费*

   结论:巴西是中产阶级国家吗?

  俄罗斯社会的中产阶级:同质性与异质性

  独立以来印度中产阶级的兴起

   中产阶级的概念

   印度中产阶级的兴起

   独立后印度的中产阶级

   种姓和中产阶级

   结论

  中国中产阶级的多重面貌

   一 有争议的中产阶级定义

    1.公众舆论中的中产阶级形象

    2.政府提出的中产阶级定义

    3.社会学家的中产阶级概念

   二 中产阶级的构成和规模

    1.中产阶级划分

    2.中产阶级内部的不同社会群体

    3.中产阶级的规模和增长速度

   三 中产阶级的构成特征

    1.中产阶级的部门和职业分布

    2.中产阶级的教育水平和年龄构成

    3.中产阶级的性别构成

    4.中产阶级的家庭出身和最初职业

   四 中产阶级的收入和消费

    1.中产阶级达到高收入的比例

    2.中产阶级的收入增长

    3.中产阶级的住房消费

    4.中产阶级的汽车消费

   五 结论

 第六篇 收入不平等

  巴西收入不均与社会分层:21世纪初十年的主要决定因素和变化

   概要

   巴西收入不平等的演变和变化:全国和国际结构特征

   由性别角度看国内收入不均

   城乡和地区间收入差别的对比

   巴西的社会分层和收入

   国内收入不平等的影响

   结论

  俄罗斯收入状况的不平衡

   定义关键词

   收入结构和不平衡

   不同地域人群收入的不平衡

  印度城乡的贫困阶层与收入不平等

   引言

   如何界定贫困和不平等?

   纲纳·缪达尔(Gunnar Myrdal)对于贫困和不平等的观点

   阿马蒂亚·森(Amartya Sen)有关印度的不平等的观点

   印度农村中的收入不平等

   印度农村和城市的贫困线

   结论

  中国收入不平等变动趋势与结构特征

   一 中国收入不平等的变动趋势

   二 中国收入不平等变化的结构性特征

   三 中国城乡、地区收入不平等

    1.城乡间收入不平等

    2.地区之间的收入不平等

   四 中国收入不平等与社会分层结构的变化

    (一)各社会阶层的收入不平等

    (二)各社会阶层的资产不平等

   五 简要结论

 第七篇 教育不平等

  巴西的教育不平等与社会分层

   前言

   教育改革与教育扩张

   教育扩张:受教育机会与教育质量的比对

   教育体制的分层和受教育机会的不平等

   三 教育不平等对阶级结构与职业的影响

    1.教育与失业

    2.使用社会经济指数(ISEI)对教育和职业地位所做的分析

   结束语

  俄罗斯的教育不平等状况

   引言

   普通教育领域发生的变化

   进入21世纪后的普通教育

    社会文化壁垒:家庭的社会和文化基础

    地区壁垒:家庭迁移和改变社会地位的机会

    经济壁垒:公开的和隐性的不平等

   毕业生的发展计划

    家长的社会地位和毕业生发展计划

    城市化的影响

   迈出学校的第一步

    社会身份与机会

    城市化的影响

    父母的社会地位加城市化:“强势”和“弱势”阶层

   结论

  改革与扩张后的印度教育不平等

   教育作为社会分层的一种系统

   教育改革与扩展

   不平等与教育机会

   分层的教育体系

   总结

  中国教育不平等及对社会分化的影响

   一 教育改革与教育扩张

    1.教育改革:精英化与市场化

    2.教育扩张

   二 教育机会不平等状况

    1.阶层之间的教育机会不平等

    2.城乡居民之间的教育机会不平等

    3.性别之间的教育不平等

   三 教育对阶层分化的影响

    1.教育对经济地位获得的影响

    2.教育水平对就业机会的影响

    3.教育水平对职业地位获得的影响

   小结

 第八篇 消费

  超越社会分层:新研究议程以来当代巴西社会的消费者行为

   消费、生活方式和社会分层:布迪厄的遗产

   2010年巴西消费者的支出与偏好:消费者社会分层分析的局限

   消费和实践理论:对于新研究议程的贡献

  俄罗斯各阶层的消费与生活方式:城乡分化与多样性

   1.在形成生活方式的问题上消费支出发生的变化

   2.城乡居民在生活方式和消费上的共性和特性

   3.资产的分化和风格的多样性

  印度新兴的消费阶层与城乡分化

   消费、生活方式与社会分层之间的关联

   消费和生活方式的变化

   消费和消费主义

   城乡之间的落差

   新兴的消费分层

   阶级、消费和生活方式

   结论

  中国的消费分层与职业分层和社会认同

   前言

   一 研究背景

   二 文献回顾与测量指标

   三 中国现阶段各社会阶层消费差异

    1.各社会阶层的资产总量和消费水平

    2.各社会阶层的消费类型

    3.各社会阶层的消费结构

    4.各社会阶层的耐用消费品拥有量

    5.各社会阶层的消费方式

   四 消费分层与其他社会分层之间的关联

    1.消费分层在职业分层中的分布

    2.消费分层在收入分层中的分布

    3.消费分层在主观阶层分布中的分布

   五 结论与讨论

 第九篇 阶级形成和阶级意识

  巴西工人阶级的形成:从工会到国家权利

   介绍

   内容

   镇压

   新联盟主义

   新自由主义

   后新自由主义

   结论

  中俄两国大学生价值观研究*

   研究任务的安排

   莫斯科和北京高校学生的价值“取向”

   大学生价值观的地域特征

  印度城乡的社会—阶级关联与阶级认同*

   阶级构成与阶级意识

   阶级分类

   印度的农业阶级

   印度城市中的阶级

   阶级与社会—政治关联

   结论

  中国社会阶层的阶层意识和阶层认同

   一 改革开放以来社会群体的阶层意识分析

    (一)阶级意识与阶层意识界定

    (二)阶层分化意识

     1.中国已是一个阶层分化的社会这一事实已为大多数公众认可

     2.公众普遍认为,阶层分化的决定因素主要是收入、权力和教育

     3.权力在中国社会的分层机制中具有重要作用

    (三)阶层认同意识

     1.阶层归属认同

     2.阶层等级认同

    (三)阶层冲突意识

     1.大部分中国公众都意识到存在着阶层冲突

     2.社会群体利益冲突意识最为强烈的是“白领”特征的职业阶层群体和认同下层地位的主观阶层群体

     3.社会群体间利益冲突主要表现在贫富分化、劳资冲突和干群关系紧张

   二 中国社会阶层意识形成的独特性

 后记

 作者简介

“金砖国家”正在成为一个被国际社会接受的概念和力量,也成为继东亚雁行模式和市场转轨模式之后的一个新的理解中国的比较视角。“金砖国家”的崛起将重组国际秩序和改变未来,而这些国家的社会分层结构变迁,是从深层打开理解之门的钥匙。金砖国家社会结构的变化,特别是社会分层结构的变化,是一个来自社会学的特殊的观察和分析问题的角度。这一视角将有助于我们理解这些新兴经济大国经济增长和社会发展的过程,也有助于我们理解,这些在历史、地理、文化、语言、宗教等方面存在诸多不同的崛起中的大国,何以能够在某些方面形成统一意愿和共同行动。因为正是这些国家社会结构的深层变化,决定着它们的未来,也在很大程度上影响着世界的未来。

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